Quick facts

Qualitative facts

1.  Electoral system and party system and their impact on women

2.  History of Women's suffrage

3.  Legal framework for the promotion of a balance between men and women in political decision-making
   a.  Infrastructure responsible for EO
   b.  Women's participation in politics as a governmental objective and strategy
   c.  Actions initiated to promote women's participation in politics

Europäische Datenbank: Frauen in Führungspositionen

Report from Liechtenstein by our transnational partner
Gleichstellungsbüro Fürstentum Liechtenstein

Quick facts
Women in Politics:
Women's suffrage active: 1984 on the national level
Women's suffrage passive: 1984 on the national level
1st Women in parliament: 1986
1st Women in government: 1984-1993 Maria Foser, Stellvertretende Regierungsrätin
Ministry on Social Affairs
1st Ministry on women's issues: 1996
% women in national Parliament: 4,0% (2000)
% women in national Government: 20% (2000)
Electoral System:
Proportional: The people elects 25 members of parliament (Landtag) - from there 5 members of government are suggested to the Duc of Lichtenstein.
Quota:
Quota Law: No quota regulation legislation.
Party Quota: No quota system on party level.
Education:
% women with secondary degree: 49% (1999/2000)
% women with degree in higher education: not available
% women in senior management: not available
Women's employment rates:
Full time: 68,0%
Part-time: 32,0%
Activity rate: 38,0%
Unemployment: not available
*sources: Employment in Europe 1999 and Schlüsselzahlen zum Bildungswesen in der Europäischen Union, Amt für amtliche Veröffentlichungen der Europäischen Gemeinschaft 1997, Luxemburg; European Database - Women in Decision-Making and data by transnational experts.

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Qualitative facts

1. Electoral system and party system and their impact on women

Liechtenstein's Parliament, the Landtag, is elected every four years. The Landtag consists of 25 deputies, 15 of them are from the Oberland electoral district and 10 from the Unterland electoral district. They are elected by universal, equal suffrage through direct and secret ballot, in accordance with the proportional representation system. Only parties that exceed a cutoff level of 8 per cent nationwide are admitted to the Landtag. The deputies execute their duties in addition to their professional activities. During the current term (1997-2001), three parties are represented in the Landtag.

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2. History of Women's suffrage

Private organizations have been and continue to be an important driving force of the equality policy in Liechtenstein. At the time of the new women's movement, the Working Group for Women was established in 1971 in response to the rejection of women's suffrage in the referendum. It set itself the goal of "meaningful equality of rights". With the aim of achieving a breakthrough in the introduction of the vote for women, the "Sleeping Beauty" movement was established in 1981. Since the establishment of women's right to vote at the national level in 1984, there has been some increase in the proportion of women in decision-making political bodies.

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3. Legal framework for the promotion of a balance between men and women in political decision-making

Through the Constitution Act of June 16, 1992, the principle of equality of rights was incorporated in the Constitution as article 31, paragraph 2.

a. Infrastructure responsible for EO

The Ministry for Family Affairs and Equality between Women and Men was established in 1996. The Commission on Equal Rights for Women and Men, which has been in existence since 1986, and the Equality Bureau, a government office that began work in May 1996, play their parts in accelerating the process of achieving equality in Liechtenstein. In 1994, the Government also established a working group for the advancement of women within the national government service.

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b. Women's participation in politics as a governmental objective and strategy

1997 - Analysis of votes for women candidates - An election to the Landtag was held in Liechtenstein in February 1997. The results were disappointing for the female candidates. A voter's opinion poll and a questionnaire sent to the women candidates and the chairpersons of the local party branches revealed three main reasons for the poor performance of women in the Landtag election. In the first place, women's general image is a problem. In the second place is their low level of recognition; and in third place is their lack of political experience combined with the effect of men's long-standing dominance in politics.
1997: The Government resolved, if possible, that neither sex should be assigned more than two thirds of the seats in any public body. The goal is an equitable ratio of male to female members in commissions, working groups and delegations.
1997/1998: The Commission on Equal Rights for Women and Men and the Equality Bureau compiled a list of measures to be taken in order to achieve "balanced representation of women in all political bodies".
1998: The Commission on Equal Rights for Women and Men and the Equality Bureau published a brochure. In this brochure was a list of a variety of measures.
1999: Liechtenstein celebrated 15 years of women's right to vote. The Equality Bureau together with the NGOs organized the First Women's Congress in Liechtenstein. The Equality Bureau established a pool of suitable women for the work in commissions or working groups of the Government. In addition, they compiled statistics on communal and national commissions. The Commission on Equal Rights for Women and Men made a study with women in political fields.
2000: The Equality Bureau launched different courses to motivate women for political work. Since 1997, the Equality Bureau and the women's organizations meet together to work on common projects or to discuss their positions on equal rights issues.

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c. Actions initiated to promote women's participation in politics

Most of the non-governmental organizations, which work to serve the interests of women, children and fathers (and hence of families), receive financial support from the State.

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